Monday, October 11, 2010

Art and Craft Movement - William Morris

 William Morris
1834-1896

English craftsman, poet, and early socialist, whose designs generated the Arts and Crafts Movement in the later half of the1900th century. Morris encouraged to return to handmade objects and rejected standard tastes. He was associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and a close friend of the painter-poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti and his sister Christina Rossetti, also a poet.
"If you want a golden rule that will fit everybody, this is it: Have nothing in your houses that you do not know to be useful, or believe tom be beautiful." (from 'The Beauty of Life', 1880)
William Morris was born in Walthamstow, Greater London, the son of William Morris, a successful business man, and Emma Shelton Morris. He attended Marlborough College in 1848-51 and in 1853 he entered Exeter College, Oxford, where he met Edward Burne-Jones and Charles Faulkner. Morris thought for a while of taking Holy Orders, but he renounced the Church, and after taking his B.A. in 1856 Morris began his studies in architecture. Morris's early poems were published in The Oxford and Cambridge Magazine – he also financed the publication. In 1858 Morris worked with Rossetti, Burne-Jones, and others on the frescoes in the Oxford Union. He published THE DEFENCE OF GUENEVERE AND OTHER POEMS (1858), which contains much of his best work, including 'The Haystack in the Floods', 'Concerning Geffray Teste Noire', 'Shameful Death', and 'Golden Wings'. They all have medieval settings - Morris was obsessed with medieval world. In the prose fantasy 'The Hollow Land' (1856) an unjust knight enters an eartly paradise. He departs it, becomes aged, and finally regains the land through devotion to pictorial art.

In 1859 Morris married Jane Burden and worked as a professional painter (1857-62). Their home, Red House at Bexley, was designed by Philip Webb. It was an important landmark in domestic architecture. Literary fame Morris gained with the romantic narrative THE LIFE AND DEATH OF JASON, which appeared in 1867, and was based on the story of Jason, Medea, and the Argonauts. It was followed by THE EARTHLY PARADISE (1868-70), and BOOK OF VERSE (1870). Morris's visits in Iceland in the 1870s inspired The Story of Sigurd the Volsung and the Fall of the Nibelungs (1876), which is regarded his principal poetic achievement. This period in Morris's life was marked by marriage problems - his wife had an affair with Rossetti and he was involved with Georgiana Burne-Jones.

In the 1860s Morris started revolutionize the art of house decoration and furniture in England after founding the firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. The firm first specialized in providing stained glass and fittings for churches, but gradually won a cliente for domestic wares. Morris himself was an energetic craftsman, who learned to dye for himself, when he decided that the firm should turn to printing of textiles. His "Daisy" wallpaper, designed in 1862, became famous - his wallpapers have never gone out of fashion. Other sought-after products were tapestries, carpets, stained glass and stencilled mural decorations etc. "I do not want art for a few, any more than I want education for a few, or freedom for a few," he once said. In 1877 he founded the Society for the protection of Ancient Buildings in protest against the destruction being caused by the restorers.
Morris defined art as "the expression by man of his pleasure in labor". In the Middle Ages art, according to him, artist were plain workmen. The things which are today's museum pieces, where common things earlier. Art should become this again: "a happiness for the maker and the user." Morris derived his art theories partly from Ruskin, who hated contemporary style and has said that a railway station could never be architecture. Ruskin advocated free schools, free libraries, town planning, smokeless zones, and green belts – ideas that presupposed social reforms.

The Morris family moved into Kelmscott House at Hammersmith in 1878. In 1883 he joined the Social Democratic Federation and subsequently organized the Socialist League, with its own publication, The Commonweal. In 1887 he and George Bernard Shaw led a political demonstration in London.

Morris's love for old handsome books and illuminated manuscripts resulted in the founding of the Kelmscott Press. It produced from 1891 to 1898 53 titles in 66 volumes, among others The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. He also designed three typestyles for his press, and translated Virgil's Aeneid (1875), Odyssey (1887), and Beowulf (1895). Morris's novel The Well at the World's End (1896) was a forerunner of J.R.R. Tolkien's kind of secondary word fantasy literature. The protagonist is Ralph who drinks from the youth-giving and life-prolonging well. The utopian romances A Dream of John Ball (1888) and News from Nowhere (1891) were first published in serial form in The Commonweal, the newspaper of the Socialist League. Both were cast in a dream setting. Erich S. Rabkin dismissed News from Nowhere as "a Communist tract" but C.S. Lewis praised Morris's style and language. "No mountains in literature are as far away as distant mountains in Morris," he wrote about the author's fantasies.
"The Kelmscott Press reduced the matter to an absurdity – as seen from the point of view of brute serviceability alone – by issuing books for modern use, edited with the obsolete spelling, printed in black-letter, and bound in limp vellum fitted with thongs. As a further characteristic feature which fixes the economic place of artistic book-making, there is the fact that these elegant books are, at their best, printed in limited editions. A limited edition is in effect a guarantee – somewhat crude, it is true – that this book is scarce and that it therefore is costly and lends pecuniary distinction to its consumer." (from The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, 1953, originally published 1899)
The narrator of News from Nowhere, William Guest, wakes up in twenty-first-century London, in a radically changed society. The socialist revolution has abolished capitalism, money does not play any role in the bucolic harmony, there are no factories or industrial waste in the word of artisans, which evokes the spirit of the Middle Ages. Because the whole people is the parliament, the Houses of Parliament have lost their former function, and they been turned into a dung-market. Like Thoreau in Walden, or a Life in the Woods (1854), Morris rejects mass society and argues for the ideal of the simple life.

On his death, Morris was widely mourned as 'our best man' by his fellow socialists. His view that the true stimulation to useful labor must be found in the work itself is still relevant. His designs brought about a complete revolution in public taste, though he was aware that only the rich could afford the products of his firm.
For further reading: Life of William Morris by John W. Mackail (1889); William Morris, A Critical Study by John Drinkwater (1912); Rehabilitations and Other Essays by C.S. Lewis (1939); William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary by E.P. Thompson (1955); William Morris: His Life, Works, and Friends by Philip Henderson (1967); The Work of William Morris by Paul Thompson (1967); William Morris by Holbrook Jackson (1971); William Morris: The Man and the Myth by Robert P. Arnot (1976); Worlds Beyond the World: The Fantastic Vision of William Morris by Richard Mathews (1978); William Morris: A Reference Guide by Gary L. Aho (1985); William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary, ed. by E.P. Thompson (1988); The Romances of William Morris by Amanda Hodgson (1987); William Morris: A Life for Our Time by F. MacCarthy (1994); William Morris: The Critical Heritage, ed. by Peter Faulkner (1995); Art, Enterprise and Ethics: The Life and Work of William Morris by Charles Harvey, Jon Press (1996); William Morris: Redesigning the World by John Burdick (1998); William Morris and the Aesthetic Constitution of Politics by Bradley J. MacDonald (1999) - See also: Snorri Sturluson

Selected works:
  • The Defence of Guenevere and other Poems, 1858
  • The Life and Death of Jason, 1867
  • The Earthy Paradise, 1868-70
  • Books of Verse, 1870
  • Love is Enough, 1872
  • Aeneid, 1875 (translation)
  • Story of Sigurd the Volsung and the Fall of the Niblungs, 1876 (4 vols.)
  • The Decorative Arts, 1878
  • Chants for Socialists, 1884-85
  • Odyssey, 1887 (translation)
  • A Dream of John Ball, 1888
  • The House of the Wolfings, 1889
  • The Story of the Glittering Plain, or the Land of Living Men, 1890
  • News from Nowhere, or, An Epoch of Rest, 1890 - Ihannemaa (suom. J.K. Kari, 1900-1901) / Huomispäivän uutisia (suom. Ville-Juhani Sutinen, 2008)
  • Poems by the Way, 1891
  • The Wood Beyond the World, 1894
  • Child Christopher, 1895
  • Beowulf, 1895 (translation)
  • The Well at the World's End, 1896
  • The Sundering Flood, 1898
  • The Collected Works of William Morris, 1910-15 (24 vols., ed. May Morris)
  • Stories in Prose, Stories in Verse, Shorter Poems, Lectures and Essays, 1934
  • William Morris, Artist, Writer, Socialist, 1936 (2 vols., ed. May Morris)
  • The Letters of William Morris to his Family and Friends, 1950 (ed. Philip Henderson)
  • Unpublished Letters, 1951
  • Selected Writings, 1963
  • The Collected Letters of William Morris, 1984
  • Political Writings of William Morris, 1984 (ed. by A.L. Morton)
  • The Collected Letters of William Morris, Part B: 1885-1888, 1987
  • The Collected Letters of William Morris, Part A: 1881-1884, 1988
  • The Collected Letters of William Morris: 1889-1892, vol III, 1996
  • The Collected Letters of William Morris: 1893-1896, vol. IV, 1996 
Original article come from here.
Original photos come from here.

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